AVFT – Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft es-ES revistaavft@gmail.com (Felipe Espino) saberucvrevistas@gmail.com (José Palacios) Mon, 27 Sep 2021 12:40:29 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Fast dissolving film nanocrystal (FDFN) preparation as a new trend for solubility enhancement of poorly soluble class ii drug tenoxicam http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23027 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This research targeted to prepare, characterize and evaluate fast dissolving film nanocrystals (FDFN) of tenoxicam (TNX) as an innovative system using three different film-former polymers, HPMC E 30, PVP K90 and PVA, for the optimization of BCS class II drug solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability.<strong> Methods: </strong>TNX nanocrystals first prepared using acid-base nanoprecipitation method, which further formulated into fifteen FDF using HPMC E 30, PVP K90 and PVA as film-formers. Films were then evaluated for appearance, surface pH, folding endurance, thickness, weight variation, TS, PE, disintegration time and TNX release durations.<strong> Results:</strong> TNX nanocrystal were prepared successfully with optimized physical properties including solubility due size reduction. Six formulation, F-1, F-2, F-6, F-8, F-11 and F-12, exhibit desired FDF features as indicated by characterization techniques including fast disintegration in less than 30 seconds and <em>in vitro</em> dissolution within two minutes. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Six TNX-FDFN formulations were prepared successfully with ideal film properties and improved TNX solubility and hence, can used as an alternative to the oral form thereby avoiding associated limitations of GI irritation and poor solubility of TNX.</p> Mustafa R Abdulbaqi, Furqan M Abdulelah Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23027 Assessment of early and late implantation failure of teeth: A single-center experience with 297 implanted teeth http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23028 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Early and late failure of teeth implantation usually attributed to local conditions of the teeth, risk factors, surgical procedures whether 1-stage or 2-stage, quality of prosthetic materials, and the surgeon &lsquo;profession. <strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to assess the early and late failure rate of dental implantation. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> This prospective, single-center study done in the Consultant Clinic of Dental Implant in the Department of Dentistry at the University College of Al-Rafidain in Baghdad-Iraq during 2017-2020.&nbsp; A total number of 141 patients (80 females and 61 males) were included in the study. A total number of 297 teeth were implanted using a 1-stage and 2-stage procedure. <strong>Results:</strong> Sixteen patients were managed with 1-stage and 125 patients with a 2-stage procedure. The early failure rate was 30 out of 297 implanted teeth, while the late failure rate was negligible. Smoking and diabetes mellitus as risk factors of implantation failure constituted small percentages. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It concludes that early failure of teeth implantation is not a serious complication, while the late failure is negligible. Moreover, a 2-stage procedure is as effective as a 1-stage procedure.</p> Haydar Munir Salih, Marwan S.M Al-Nimer, Nawres Bahaa Mohammed Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23028 Estado nutricional y estilo de vida en escolares. Una mirada desde unidades educativas públicas y privadas http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23029 <p>En la actualidad la prevalencia e incidencia de enfermedades asociadas a la dieta en escolares se ha incrementado de manera alarmante y la evidencia muestra la relaci&oacute;n con el ejercicio de estilos de vida no saludables. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el estado nutricional y estilo de vida en escolares de 8 a 10 a&ntilde;os de unidades educativas p&uacute;blicas y privadas del cant&oacute;n Azogues, Ecuador. Se cont&oacute; con la participaci&oacute;n de 238 escolares de cuatro establecimientos educativos. Estudio cuantitativo, correlacional de corte transversal. El estilo de vida se evalu&oacute; con la prueba validada &ldquo;CHVSAAF y paralelamente se realiz&oacute; la evaluaci&oacute;n del estado nutricional a trav&eacute;s de indicadores antropom&eacute;tricos seg&uacute;n criterios de la Organizaci&oacute;n Mundial de la Salud. De los resultados se destaca una prevalencia de malnutrici&oacute;n de 6,7% peso bajo, 16,4% baja talla, 17,2% sobrepeso y 4,6% obesidad, en relaci&oacute;n con el estilo de vida el 70,6% muestra categor&iacute;as de poco y no saludable. Sin embargo, no se encontr&oacute; asociaci&oacute;n significativa entre las variables de estudio. Se espera aportar informaci&oacute;n a las autoridades educativas para emprender acciones que modifiquen los h&aacute;bitos inadecuados para evitar el desarrollo de enfermedades cr&oacute;nicas en la edad adulta.</p> Viviana Lema Lema, María Alejandra Aguirre, Narcisa Godoy Durán, Nancy Cordero Zumba Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23029 Preparation and evaluation of zinc oxide (ZnO) metal nanoparticles carriers for azilsartan http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23030 <p>The present study involves the utilization of metal oxide nanoparticles, zinc oxide (ZnO), as a drug delivery module for the antihypertensive drug, azilsartan, as a tool of particle size reduction. According to biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS), azilsartan belong to class II with low solubility and high permeability. ZnO nanoparticles was synthesized using chemical precipitation method, and then three formulations (FI, FII, and FIII) were prepared using variable azilsartan medoxomil / ZnO nanoparticles molar ratios. Formula III, with 2:1 drug / nanocarrier molar ratio, was found to contain the higher percent of loaded drug and therefore was selected for further studies as the most optimum formulation. The release rate of azilsartan medoxomil from ZnO complex showed significant (p &le; 0.05) enhancement than pure drug with complete liberation after 60 minutes. High values of percent yield, entrapment efficiency and drug loading of FIII indicate successful loading and efficient FIII formulation. The X- ray diffractogram and DSC thermogram of FIII reveal stable formulation with decreased crystallinity of surface loaded drug. AFM images reveal particle size reduction as noted by the increased surface area ratio of FIII (114) in comparison to azilsartan medoxomil (2.9) at the same image size. FTIR indicate stable FIII formulation with no chemical interaction. As a conclusion, azilsartan medoxomil was loaded successfully on synthesized metal ZnO nanoparticles with optimized properties in term of dissolution rate and crystallinity.</p> Mustafa R Abdulbaqi, Hanan J Kassab, Furqan M Abdulelah Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23030 Explorando el vínculo entre la enfermedad cerebrovascular y la COVID-19 http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23031 <p>La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha generado una carga sanitaria internacional pr&aacute;cticamente insostenible, alcanzando el estatus de pandemia. Aunque la infecci&oacute;n puede ocurrir en todo tipo de individuos, se ha observado que la edad avanzada, al igual que la presencia de m&uacute;ltiples comorbilidades, se correlaciona positivamente con la tasa de infecci&oacute;n y mortalidad. Los pulmones parecen ser el &oacute;rgano diana de la infecci&oacute;n; sin embargo, no es infrecuente que el paciente presente afectaci&oacute;n en otros &oacute;rganos. Resulta de particular inter&eacute;s que la enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV) ha sido reportada en algunos casos severos de COVID-19. Incluso, se ha advertido que el ictus podr&iacute;a cursar como forma de presentaci&oacute;n de la COVID-19. A pesar de que la edad y los antecedentes como la hipertensi&oacute;n arterial y la diabetes mellitus juegan un papel preponderante en el desarrollo de ECV, estos no parecen ser los &uacute;nicos mecanismos subyacentes en el paciente con COVID-19. Se ha reportado que pacientes con antecedentes de ECV tienen un peor pron&oacute;stico en relaci&oacute;n con la COVID-19, sugiriendo una relaci&oacute;n bidireccional entre estas entidades. Esta revisi&oacute;n tiene como objetivo revisar los mecanismos fisiopatol&oacute;gicos que expliquen la conexi&oacute;n entre la ECV y la COVID-19.</p> Iván Moya Guerrero, Julio Arboleda Demera, Alex Guananga Coba, Mariela Freire Córdova, Verónica De La Cruz Espinosa, Entza Erazo Verdugo, Diana Reimundo Díaz, Myriam Chacha Ulloa Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23031 Adaptación y validación para el contexto ecuatoriano de la Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo (MPS) http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23032 <p><strong>Resumen</strong>. El objetivo del presente estudio fue adaptar, estudiar la estructura factorial y fiabilidad en poblaci&oacute;n ecuatoriana de la Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo (MPS). Se emple&oacute; una muestra no probabil&iacute;stica de 1172 participantes (edad: <em>M</em>= 21,99; <em>DT</em> = 2,49; 58,6% mujeres y 41,4% hombres). El primer estudio de an&aacute;lisis paralelo identific&oacute; siete factores interpretables que explican el 59,02% de la varianza. El segundo estudio de an&aacute;lisis factorial confirmatorio indica un ajuste aceptable (GFI= 0,93;&nbsp;AGFI = 0,91; NFI = 0,90;&nbsp;RMR = 0,11). Los coeficientes de fiabilidad por alfa de Cronbach y omega de McDonald fueron ambos de 9,87. La versi&oacute;n ecuatoriana de la EMP muestra buenas propiedades psicom&eacute;tricas y se adapta al contexto cultural de Ecuador.</p> Geovanny Genaro Reivan-Ortiz, Ximena Augusta Campoverde Pesantes, Rafael Gerardo Yanza Méndez, Andrés Alexis Ramírez Coronel, Pedro Carlos Martínez-Suárez Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23032 Prevalence of vulvovaginal Candidiasis and its association with Contraceptives http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23033 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The current study aimed to investigate the association between the use of hormonal contraceptives and development of vaginal candidiasis infection. <strong>Methods:</strong> Vaginal swabs were collected from 270 women after inclusion and exclusion criteria, of which, 202 women were contraceptive users and 68 women were not using contraceptives. Detailed clinical history and full examination including vaginal examination were done. After clinical diagnosis has been made, appropriate laboratory tests for isolation of Candida and its species were done via using the standard procedures. <strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; Out of 270 women, 145 (53.7%; %95 CI: 40.4- 52.2) were found to have positive Candida culture with Candida albicans was the dominant species isolated. vaginal candidiasis was more prevalent among contraceptive users as compared to not using contraceptives (84.1% vs. 15.9%) respectively (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001). All Candida species were found significantly more prevalent among contraceptive users and Candida albicans identified to have the higher proportion (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.05). Vaginal candiasis was significantly more prevalent among women who using (COCP) than those who using injectable or (IUCD) (90.16% vs. 6.56% vs. 3.28%) respectively, with significant prevalence differences of its species regarding contraceptive methods used (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.001). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> A strong association have been found between the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis and its Candida<em> </em>species and the use of contraceptives. Among contraceptive methods, the Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill (COCP) is the most influencing method that contributes to the vaginal candidiasis.</p> Solafa Rabi Salih, Reem Ali Haddad, Shaymaa Abid Hassan Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23033 Complications of Port-A-Cath using for chemotherapy, drugs, and fluid administration in Mosul city http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23034 <p>Port-A-Cath PAC has been increasingly used in cancer patients undergoing long term chemotherapy, however, no previous study has been done in Mosul for verifying its associated complications with chemotherapy administration.</p> <p><strong>Patients and methods:</strong> This is a prospective, observational study that evaluated early and late complications and efficacy of US-guided puncture of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) for PAC placement. It was conducted on patients who were diagnosed and treated in Mosul Oncology Hospitals in the period from Nov. 2017 to Nov. 2019 and had PAC for chemotherapy, drugs, blood and fluid administration. 93 patients were included in this study and followed up for at least 8 months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 93 included patients, there were 50 (53.7%) male and 43 (46.2%) female patients. Their mean age was 51, with a range from 17-80 years. Early complications were found in 14 (15 %) patients and late complications were found in 13 (13.9%) patients. No pneumothorax complication was reported in our study. Mal-position was occurred in 4 patients who underwent implantation without screening. Pulmonary embolism was never found. Wound bleeding was developed in 3 patients. The accidental arterial puncture occurred in 6 patients for whom PAC was inserted without US guidance and managed simply by direct pressure without surgical intervention. Thrombosis was developed in 3 patients that required anticoagulant therapy, mild and superficial wound infection occur in 7 patients. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: According to our data, it is safe and cost-effective to use PCA in our patients for their psychological satisfaction and prevention of peripheral vein complications and difficulties in getting venous access. In addition, the port can be used in different ways like antibiotic injections, blood transfusion, fluid administration together with the chemotherapy.</p> Fawaz Mahmood Mustafa Al-Faqe, Alya Abdulaziz Al Zobair, Bassam Ismael Jasim Alzuhairy Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23034 Study of the association between the congenital uterine septum and polycystic ovarian syndrome in infertility tertiary center in Iraq http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23035 <p class="Body"><strong>Objective</strong>: The reproductive outcomes with patients who have both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and uterine anomalies are poor. The study aims to assess the association between congenital uterine septum anomalies and PCOS in infertile patients.</p> <p class="Body"><strong>Patients and Method:</strong> A retrospective case-control study on a cohort of 1374 consecutive patients seeking fertility advice at a tertiary specialized Tiba fertility Clinic, during the period of January 2015 to July 2019. The study depends on the Endocrine Society released practice guidelines for the diagnosis of PCOS. All women with suspected PCOS were screened for thyroid disease, hyperprolactinemia, and nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Gynecological examination, ultrasonography, hysterosalpingography (HSG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and combined hysteroscopy and laparoscopy were all used as methods of diagnosis. Infertile patients are subdivided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of associated congenital uterine anomalies. Patients diagnosed with PCOS were observed as a group. The interrelationship between the congenital uterine anomalies subgroups was thoroughly studied in diagnosed patients with or without PCOS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were no significant differences between means of age according to hysteroscopy results including (Septum or normal) P-value 0.068. The percentage of infertile women with septum who had PCOS was (31.9%) which represents 219 women from a total of 687 women. There was a significant association between hysteroscopy results and polycystic ovarian syndrome. A higher percentage of PCOS (31.9) was presented among patients with a septum in comparison to (24.0%) among those with normal hysteroscopy P-value 0.001.</p> <p class="Body"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There was an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and congenital uterine septum in infertile patients that might exist between the two reproductive health problems.</p> Adnan A.H. Albdairi, Mohend A.N. Al-Shalah Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23035 Estilos de vida y adherencia a terapia antihipertensiva, la Era-Lima Perú y San Miguel-Arica Chile http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23036 <p><strong>Introducci&oacute;n:</strong> Para el adecuado control de la hipertensi&oacute;n arterial es necesario que los pacientes se adhieran a las recomendaciones sobre el cumplimiento del tratamiento antihipertensivo y la modificaci&oacute;n de sus estilos de vida.</p> <p><strong>Objetivo: </strong>Determinar la asociaci&oacute;n entre el estilo de vida y la adherencia al tratamiento en pacientes hipertensos. <strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Metodolog&iacute;a:</strong> Estudio anal&iacute;tico transversal, conformado por 250 pacientes hipertensos, 150 pertenecientes al Centro de Salud La Era-Lima, Per&uacute; y 100 al Programa de &ldquo;Salud Cardiovascular&rdquo; de San Miguel-Arica, Chile, elegidos mediante muestreo no probabil&iacute;stico y por conveniencia. Para la recolecci&oacute;n de datos se emple&oacute; el cuestionario de Perfil de Estilo de Vida (PEPS-I) y la escala de Morisky-Green previamente validados. Para el an&aacute;lisis multivariado se utiliz&oacute; la regresi&oacute;n de varianza robusta de Poisson.</p> <p><strong>Resultados:</strong> El 58,8% de los pacientes hipertensos practicaron un inadecuado estilo de vida y el 58,4% no fueron adherentes al tratamiento. Al an&aacute;lisis multivariado, una adecuada pr&aacute;ctica de los estilos de vida en las dimensiones: nutrici&oacute;n (RPa=1,56; IC 95%=1,14-2,14), relaciones interpersonales (RPa=1,58; IC 95%=1,05-2,36) y responsabilidad en salud (RPa=1,54; IC 95%=1,02-2,30) se asocian a la adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo.</p> <p><strong>Conclusiones: </strong>Tener una nutrici&oacute;n, relaciones interpersonales y responsabilidad con la salud adecuadas se asocian a la adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo.</p> Mayela Cajachagua Castro, Cyntia Vargas Ticona, Marizol Ingles Rayme, Janett Chávez Sosa Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23036 Producción científica mundial sobre la vacuna contra el Covid-19: análisis del período 2020-2021 http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23037 <p><strong>Objetivo</strong>. Caracterizar la producci&oacute;n cient&iacute;fica mundial sobre la vacuna para combatir el Covid-19 en las bases de datos Scopus, Web of Science, Google Acad&eacute;mico, PubMed, Microsoft Academic y Crosreff entre los meses de enero de 2020 a abril de 2021. <strong>Material y m&eacute;todos. </strong>Se trabaj&oacute; con un universo constituido por 3817 art&iacute;culos obtenidos. Se calcularon los indicadores bibliom&eacute;tricos a trav&eacute;s del <em>software</em> Publish or Perish v. 7.31, VOSwiever, Pubreminer, Dimensions y de los mismos softwares anal&iacute;ticos de las bases de datos elegidas. <strong>Resultados.</strong> Los resultados indican un total de 30619 citas, con un promedio de 5103; 11 y 2251 citas por a&ntilde;o, citas por art&iacute;culo y citas por autor respectivamente. Las publicaciones en promedio poseen un &iacute;ndice h de 26.00, un &iacute;ndice g de 42.00 y un &iacute;ndice e de 33.59. De entre los art&iacute;culos m&aacute;s citados destaca el de Prompetchara, Kettoy y Palaga, (2020); de entre las revistas con mayor producci&oacute;n sobre el tema destaca la British Medical Journal &ndash; BMJ; el pa&iacute;s con mayor producci&oacute;n sobre vacunas es EEUU; y el tipo de producci&oacute;n cient&iacute;fica que m&aacute;s destaca son los art&iacute;culos originales. <strong>Conclusiones</strong>. Estos resultados evidencian que la producci&oacute;n de art&iacute;culos cient&iacute;ficos sobre la vacuna para combatir el Covid-19 ha experimentado un crecimiento significativo lo que demuestra el enorme esfuerzo cient&iacute;fico realizado a nivel mundial para controlar esta enfermedad.</p> Dennis Arias-Chávez, Julio E Postigo-Zumarán, Juan Carlos Chumacero Calle, Jessica Paola Palacios Garay, Yolvi Ocaña-Fernández, Ronald M. Hernández Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23037 Postoperative Serum Calcium as a marker for Hypocalcemia after Thyroidectomy http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23038 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The present<strong> </strong>study aimed to determine the incidence of hypocalcemia (temporary and permanent) following total thyroidectomy and to assess whether or not its clinical and biochemical features could be used as predictive markers for postoperative hypocalcemia.<strong> Methods:</strong> A total of 144 patients who undergone a total thyroidectomy were constitutes the base of such prospective study. Serum calcium were measured in addition to details of the operation including the pathology and complications were recorded. <strong>Results:</strong> The rate of hypocalcemia was identified in 70 patients (48.61%), among them, 62 patients (43.05%) were found to developed temporary hypocalcemia and only 8 patients (5.55) identified to developed a permanent hypocalcemia. Temporary hypocalcemia was significantly more common among patient who had a toxic goiter. The mean of serum calcium levels that measured at 6 hours and 24 hours postoperatively were significantly different among study&rsquo;s groups of hypocalcemia (normo-calcemia, temporary and permanent hypocalcemia). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The serum calcium levels that measured six hours and 24 hours post thyroidectomy are useful as predictive marker for developing hypocalcemia. <strong></strong></p> Muhammad Qasim Qazaal, Firas Fadhil Fayyadh, Solafa Rabi Salih Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23038 Estilos de afrontamiento al estrés influyentes en la solución de problemas sociales en estudiantes universitarios en aislamiento social por COVID 19 http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23039 <p><strong>Introducci&oacute;n.</strong> El Covid 19, en la actualidad es una amenaza y viene generando diferentes reacciones, desde las m&aacute;s acertadas, hasta las m&aacute;s err&oacute;neas; es aqu&iacute; cuando nuestros estilos de afrontamiento toman un papel protag&oacute;nico frente a la incertidumbre. <strong>Objetivo.</strong> La investigaci&oacute;n tiene el prop&oacute;sito identificar el estilo de afrontamiento al estr&eacute;s que predomina e influye en las habilidades para resolver problemas sociales en estudiantes universitarios y &eacute;sta influye en las habilidades para solucionar problemas en aislamiento social por COVID 19. <strong>Materiales y m&eacute;todo</strong>. El enfoque es cuantitativo, el m&eacute;todo hipot&eacute;tico deductivo, nivel explicativo y dise&ntilde;o no experimental, la muestra de 386 estudiantes universitarios calculadas a trav&eacute;s del muestreo probabil&iacute;stico aleatorio simple. Los instrumentos fueron los cuestionarios de estilos de afrontamiento y soluci&oacute;n de problemas sociales estandarizadas con validez y fiabilidad de 0,909 y 0,920 por Alpha de Cronbach respectivamente. Los resultados descriptivos orientados a trav&eacute;s del tablas cruzadas y las inferenciales con el estad&iacute;stico distribuci&oacute;n de libre asint&oacute;tica debido a que los datos corresponden a una distribuci&oacute;n normal, asimismo de realiz&oacute; los &iacute;ndices de ajuste para elaborar el modelo, &iacute;ndice de ajuste normado 0,977, &iacute;ndice de ajuste comparativo 0,994 e &iacute;ndice ajustado de bondad de ajuste 0,917 mayores al l&iacute;mite aceptable por lo tanto el modelo estructural establecido en la investigaci&oacute;n es aceptable y demuestra que el estilo predominante que influye en las resoluci&oacute;n de problemas sociales son las habilidades centrada en el problema.<strong> Conclusi&oacute;n</strong>. Los estilos de afrontamiento al estr&eacute;s influyen significativamente en la soluci&oacute;n de problemas sociales.&nbsp;</p> Doris Fuster-Guillén, Yolvi Ocaña-Fernández, Roger Pedro Norabuena Figueroa Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23039 Use of calcium channel blockers and NSAIDS as alternative to anticholinergics in the treatment of urge urinary incontinence in women http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23040 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The present<strong> </strong>study aimed to investigate the effect of use of calcium channel blockers and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs as alternative to the anticholinergics therapy in cases of urge urinary incontinence in women. <strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 63 women with urge incontinence were included in the study after inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into three treatment groups and their clinical and urodynamic parameters were recorded and analyzed comparatively.<strong> Results:</strong> Significant differences were found in the means of patients&rsquo; urinary incontinence parameters including numbers of voidings and of leakage episodes per day as well as their urodynamic parameters including maximum bladder capacity, volume at 1<sup>st</sup> contraction and residual volume after using Solifenacine, calcium channel blocker (Nifidipine<strong>) </strong>or Non-steroid anti-inflammatory (Ponstan) drugs (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). Furthermore, significant differences were found among study&rsquo;s groups regarding their response for treatment indicated by improvement in clinical and urodynamic parameters (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05).<strong> Conclusion:</strong> The study demonstrated that CCBs seem to be having some beneficial effects, with a different adverse effect profile and so may be used to complement a lower dose of anticholinergic drug.</p> Mahmood A. Al Ani, Zahraa Al-Tamimi, Reem Ali Haddad, Nawar Sahib Khalil Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23040 Prescripción de antibióticos en pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 en un hospital privado de Caracas: Estudio retrospectivo http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23041 <p><strong>Antecedentes:</strong> Existe escasa informaci&oacute;n sobre la prevalencia de la coinfecci&oacute;n bacteriana, y uso de antibi&oacute;ticos en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Este estudio eval&uacute;a la frecuencia de prescripci&oacute;n antibi&oacute;ticos intrahospitalario, de cultivos bacterianos y curso cl&iacute;nicos de los pacientes con COVID-19 seg&uacute;n uso de antibi&oacute;ticos. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>M&eacute;todos:</strong> Estudio retrospectivo, observacional de pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19. Se uso el formulario de ISARIC-OMS para recopilar datos.</p> <p><strong>Resultados: </strong>Se incluyeron 145 pacientes, 95 hombres y 50 mujeres, con edad promedio 63.8&plusmn;16.0 a&ntilde;os. 79/145 (54.5%) pacientes recibieron antibi&oacute;ticos, 52/145 (35%) tuvieron muestras para cultivo y 49/145 (33.8%) fueron hemocultivo. Se aislaron bacterias pat&oacute;genas en 7% de los pacientes. Los pacientes con antibi&oacute;tico ten&iacute;an mayor alteraci&oacute;n de oxigenaci&oacute;n, tomograf&iacute;a de t&oacute;rax y marcadores inflamatorios, m&aacute;s ingreso a UCI, fallecimientos, y estancia hospitalaria prolongada.</p> <p><strong>C</strong><strong>onclusi&oacute;n:</strong> Los resultados no respaldan el uso generalizado inicial de antibi&oacute;ticos en pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 sin aislamiento de microrganismos pat&oacute;genos.</p> Isabel Carlota Silva, Manuel Guzmán, María Montes de Oca, Santiago Bacci, Fátima de Abreu, Héctor Villarroel, Irene Stulin, Gabriela Blanco, Laura Sánchez, Jennireth Quevedo, María Cristina Arvelo, Nathalia Valera, Irene Papa, Juan Carlos Catari, José Luis Lopez, Brigitte Moran, Claudio Cárdenas, Saverio Santucci, José Luis Viloria, Eleonora García, Jerry Gómez, Antonio Martinelli Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23041 Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of global left ventricular perfusion before and after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with chronic stable angina http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23042 <p><strong>Background:</strong> percutaneous coronary intervention for symptomatic patients with chronic stable angina improves coronary artery blood flow and hence the left ventricular perfusion. Transthoracic echocardiography that is simple, non-invasive and cost effective technique, can provide an efficient procedure for measuring coronary sinus blood flow. <strong>Objectives:</strong> to assess coronary sinus blood flow (CSBF) and global LV perfusion in the coronary sinus using 2 D and Doppler transthoracic echocardiography in patients with chronic stable angina<strong> </strong>before and after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. <strong>Patients and methods:</strong> Ninety-two (92) patients with stable chronic coronary artery disease chosen after admission for diagnostic (and/or therapeutic) catheterization have been enrolled in the current study at the Department of Catheterization and Echocardiography in Baghdad teaching hospital. After admission for coronary angiography, 63 patients had positive coronary lesions and proceeded to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Fifty 50 normal healthy adults with no coronary artery disease CAD or CAD risk factors served as the control group. Standard 2D and Doppler&nbsp;echocardiography was performed and CSBF, CSVTI, CSPG LV mass and LV perfusion were registered.<strong> Results: </strong>Basic parameters were the same between the two groups (P˃0.05). Controls had significantly higher CSBF, global LV perfusion and lower LV mass than the cases group (3.04&plusmn;0.7 mL/min/gm, 501.64&plusmn;63.8 mL/min and 99.97&plusmn;9.4gm/m<sup>2</sup> in controls vs 2.11&plusmn;1mL/min/gm, 223.15&plusmn;55.7 mL/min and 195.74&plusmn;68.6 gm/m<sup>2 </sup>in the cases group). The positive group also showed significant increase in CSBF 438.09&plusmn;89.9 ml/min (p value less than 0.05) after successful PCI. The same applied for the global LV perfusion which increased to 2.537&plusmn;1.06 mL/min/gm. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study revealed that the transthoracic echocardiographic&nbsp;measurement of the coronary sinus blood&nbsp;flow is a valuable tool to assess the results obtained by angiography and it can be used as a practical and reproducible method for observing the changes&nbsp;in cardiac perfusion before and after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with chronic stable angina.</p> Zianab Abdulkhaleq Al-Rikabi, Affan E. Hasan, Ghazi F. Haji Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23042 Diagnóstico y caracterización de cáncer mamario en seres humanos: Una revisión http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23043 <p>El c&aacute;ncer de mama es una enfermedad de tipo clonal ya sea por mutaci&oacute;n adquirida o por mutaci&oacute;n de l&iacute;nea germinal que introduce una transformaci&oacute;n significativa en la estructura anat&oacute;mica del par&eacute;nquima mamario o en los elementos que le sirven de soporte. En diversos pa&iacute;ses, las alarmantes estad&iacute;sticas asociadas con la muerte por este tipo de c&aacute;ncer justifican el enorme esfuerzo que est&aacute; haciendo la comunidad internacional para abordar este problema de salud. Mediante el presente trabajo, para construir el estado del arte actual del c&aacute;ncer mamario, se realiz&oacute; una revisi&oacute;n sistem&aacute;tica de diversas fuentes de informaci&oacute;n que incluy&oacute; un total de ochenta y cinco documentos o unidades de an&aacute;lisis. Los hallazgos fundamentales muestran que, hist&oacute;ricamente, se ha producido una constante evoluci&oacute;n en el desarrollo y perfeccionamiento tanto de la terap&eacute;utica como de las t&eacute;cnicas de detecci&oacute;n del c&aacute;ncer mamario, lo cual ha estado respaldado por la incorporaci&oacute;n de los avances tecnol&oacute;gicos en la rutina cl&iacute;nica y en la cultura de los sujetos aquejados por esta patolog&iacute;a. En ese sentido, el an&aacute;lisis de los mencionados documentos permiti&oacute; detectar una importante transformaci&oacute;n de los protocolos de diagn&oacute;stico y seguimiento de este tipo de c&aacute;ncer, una profusa aplicaci&oacute;n de las t&eacute;cnicas imagenol&oacute;gicas m&eacute;dicas y un visible posicionamiento de las t&eacute;cnicas de aprendizaje autom&aacute;tico, especialmente de los operadores de inteligencia artificial, como elementos fundamentales para el desarrollo de un sinn&uacute;mero de estrategias bioingenieriles las cuales pueden ser muy &uacute;tiles como apoyo cl&iacute;nico para los especialistas onc&oacute;logos que estudian el c&aacute;ncer mamario.</p> Sandra Vargas, Miguel Vera Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23043 Problemas, necesidades y oportunidades en torno a la auditoría y los sistemas de calidad en salud http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23044 En este art&iacute;culo se presentan los resultados obtenidos al aplicar un procedimiento cualitativo de an&aacute;lisis de contenido, orientado a revelar los problemas, necesidades y oportunidades de investigaci&oacute;n en torno al sistema de salud en el departamento Norte de Santander, Colombia. Se asume una postura epistemol&oacute;gica fundamentada en la complejidad y el car&aacute;cter estructural, sist&eacute;mico y sociol&oacute;gico de los fen&oacute;menos organizacionales. Para ello, inicialmente se aplica un procedimiento de codificaci&oacute;n para etiquetar la informaci&oacute;n extra&iacute;da de un conjunto de entrevistas no estructuradas focalizadas, aplicadas a profesionales relacionados con los procesos de la auditoria y la gesti&oacute;n de los sistemas de calidad en salud. Posteriormente, se aplica un procedimiento de segmentaci&oacute;n y agrupamiento de categor&iacute;as con la idea de establecer las relaciones conceptuales que sustentan las situaciones a investigar. Como resultado, se obtiene una red sem&aacute;ntica que revela que los elementos que impactan la calidad de los servicios de atenci&oacute;n en el departamento Norte de Santander son la migraci&oacute;n, las condiciones psicosociales del personal, las intervenciones en las minor&iacute;as ind&iacute;genas, los sistemas de gesti&oacute;n y las necesidades de atenci&oacute;n. A partir de estos resultados, se puede institucionalizar el desarrollo de proyectos de investigaci&oacute;n que apalanquen el mejoramiento continuo del sistema de salud en esta regi&oacute;n del Estado colombiano Myriam Alba Arias, Antonio José Bravo Valero, Aura Patricia Cabeza Blanco, Sandra Milena Carrillo Díaz, Sonia Rocío Flórez Gamboa, Norberto García Romero, María Camila Gómez Morales, Yaneth Shirley Grisalez Martínez, Judith Patricia Morales Velandia, Harley Hernando Niño Niño, Nohora Ortega Ortega, Carolina Patiño Cabanzo, Shirley Mylena Pineda Parada, Claudia Patricia Ramírez Hernández, Jennifer Salazar Leal Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23044 Efficacy and safety of the indirect anticoagulant warfarin in its dosage based on the results of pharmacogenetic testing http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23045 <p><strong>Abstract. </strong>Thrombotic complications are one of the main causes of death and disability, causing enormous economic damage to the state. There is an increase in the number of patients at high risk of these complications. The main aim of the article is to investigate efficacy and safety of the indirect anticoagulant warfarin in its dosage based on the results of pharmacogenetic testing. &nbsp;To achieve that aim, the use of drugs (JIC) from the group of indirect oral anticoagulants (ACND) is the only and uncontested method of long-term outpatient prevention of thrombosis - their effectiveness has been proven in primary and secondary prevention of thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation and, above all, ischemic stroke. AKND therapy reduces the risk of all strokes by an average of 62%. The advantage of AKND therapy has been proven in terms of preventing primary and recurrent thromboembolism.</p> Tatyana Shunkevich, Vladimir Vladimirovich Vasil'ev, Vilena Raisovna Imanova Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23045 Feasibility of providing Namaste managed care to the elderly with Alzheimer's disease http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23046 <div><p><strong>Introduction &amp; Background:</strong> Caring for the elderly with Alzheimer's is a daunting task and trained nurses have the most important role to play in providing quality care to these patients. Since no study has been conducted in the country on the possibility of administering Namaste managed care to the elderly with Alzheimer's disease, the present research was designed and conducted with the aim of investigating the possibility of implementing Namaste care for the elderly with Alzheimer's disease.<strong> Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> In order to assess the feasibility of performing Namaste managed care, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed and developed by reviewing scientific databases (ISI, PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest), reviewing relevant texts and using the opinions of experts. The research tool has 25 questions that are organized in two parts and its validity and reliability are calculated by the researcher. The first part contains the demographic information of the participant and the second part is designed in three dimensions of human resource capability, organizational culture and management commitment in order to estimate the possibility of implementing new methods of care in the nursing home. <strong>Results:</strong> The research findings show that the possibility of implementing Namaste managed care in the dimension of human resource capability with an average of 4.18 is the highest and then the organizational culture dimension with an average of 3.89 and finally the dimension of management commitment with an average of 3.84 is the lowest.&nbsp; Also, the average feasibility score was 3.95 with a standard deviation of 0.22 and the total mean was 98.8. Therefore, according to the results (total average above 75) done the study is possible.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> Due to the rapid increase in the elderly population, the most important challenge of the health system today is to create a comprehensive care system for the elderly. Many of these patients are kept by unskilled people in unauthorized centers. Trained nurses and appropriate places play the most important role in providing a suitable environment and providing quality care for the elderly with Alzheimer's disease.</p></div> Rafat Rezapour-Nasrabad Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23046 Infecciones adquiridas en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: enfoque preventivo http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23047 <p>Los pacientes atendidos en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) son especialmente vulnerables al desarrollo de infecciones asociadas con la atenci&oacute;n sanitaria. Las infecciones adquiridas en la UCI (IAU) se asocian con peores resultados cl&iacute;nicos y muy alta mortalidad; adem&aacute;s de una carga asistencial sustanciosa, con gastos financieros importantes, mayor demanda para el personal, mayor consumo de recursos e insumos, y tiempos prolongados de estancia intrahospitalaria. Por ende, el estudio, aplicaci&oacute;n y evaluaci&oacute;n de medidas preventivas para estas entidades es menester en todos los centros asistenciales. El correcto diagn&oacute;stico y clasificaci&oacute;n de las IAU es el primer paso en su control preventivo. Posteriormente, un plan exhaustivo para la vigilancia de IAU debe contemplar varios aspectos ambientales relacionados con el espacio f&iacute;sico, as&iacute; como elementos administrativos concernientes a los equipos m&eacute;dicos, el personal y pol&iacute;ticas de trabajo en la unidad. A pesar del impacto avasallante de las IAU en la pr&aacute;ctica m&eacute;dica contempor&aacute;nea, las actitudes del personal de salud en relaci&oacute;n con estos problemas con mucha frecuencia no implican la mayor disposici&oacute;n para un nivel apropiado de cumplimiento. Por lo tanto, es indispensable incrementar la instrucci&oacute;n del personal en relaci&oacute;n con la gran variedad de elementos en el arsenal preventivo contra estas infecciones. Asimismo, es importante estudiar, instituir y evaluar estipulaciones administrativas orientadas a hacer cumplir las medidas preventivas contra las IAU. En esta revisi&oacute;n se resumen las perspectivas actuales referentes a la prevenci&oacute;n de las IAU.</p> Jorge Eduardo Portacio Navas, Luisa María Carvajal Castaño, Maribel de Los Ángeles Burgos Juncal, Christian Arturo Zurita Escobar, Jairo Javier Callay Vimos, Andrea Gioconda Campaña Zurita, Daniela Estefanía Barrera Andaluz, Gabriela del Cisne Lascano Laica, Santiago Andrés Villegas Ipiales Derechos de autor http://saber.ucv.ve/ojs/index.php/rev_aavft/article/view/23047