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Título : Onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus of southern Venezuela: altitude and blackfly species composition as predictors of endemicity to select communities for ivermectin control programmes
Autor : Sarai, Vivas-Martínez
Basáñez, María-Gloria
Grillet, María-Eugenia
Weiss, Helen
Botto, Carlos
García, Mayila
Villamizar, Nestor J.
Chavasse, Desmond C.
Palabras clave : Venezuela
Onchocerca voZvulus
Amazonian focus
Fecha de publicación : 1998
Citación : ;92
Resumen : Abstract In preparation for an ivermectin distribution programme, the prevalence and intensity of infection due to Onchocerca volvulus as well as the species composition and abundance of Simulium vectors were investigated in 22 Yanomami communities situated along 2 altitudinal transects in the southern Venezuelan onchocerciasis focus.These transects corresponded to the Ocamo-Putaco and Orinoco-Orinoquito river systems, covering a range of elevation between 50 m and 740 m above sea level (asl). A total of 83 1 people underwent parasitological examination in this survey and an additional 196 patients from a previous study, at an altitude of 950 m, were included in the analysis. A total of 92659 man-biting blackflies were collected and identified to morphospecies. S. oyapockense s. 1. was the predominant simuliid up to 150 m asl, whereas S. guianense s.1. and S. incrustatum s.1. prevailed above 150 m. Communities located below 150 m were found to range from hypo- to mesoendemic; all villages above 150 m proved to be hyperendemic (>60% microfilarial prevalence) and mass ivermectin treatment should be implemented. Age above lo-14 years, altitude of the village and biting rate of S. guianense s.1. up to 200 m as1 were found to be statistically significant independent predictors of infection by multivariate logistic regression using a spline model. There were no differences in infection status according to sex. Above 200 m, microfilarial rate and density remained approximately constant, prevalence averaging 79% regardless of blackfly abundance. For the implementation of ivermectin-based onchocerciasis control programmes in the Amazonian focus, altitude and species composition of the blackfly population might be adopted as useful indicators aiding selection of the most affected communities. However, below 200 m additional parasitological indicators may also be necessary. As a direct result of this study, regular mass-ivermectin delivery to meso- and hyperendemic communities is now in progress.
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